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Thursday, July 1, 2010

DISTINCT DISCURSIVE FEATURES OF NEWS


Mohammed V-Agdal University                                          Academic Year 2006-2007

Faculty of Letters and Humanities                                      Discourse Analysis

English Department                                                              

S6 Moh
                                                           







DISTINCT DISCURSIVE FEATURES OF NEWS HEADLINES USED IN THE BBC’S AND ALJAZEERA’S WEBSITES.









Prepared by Driss Belgnaoui

Supervised by Dr. Fatima Zahra Lamrani





Academic year: 2006-2007



                                                                        Introduction



       Recently, there has been a major renovation in the way news is presented. This evolutionary change is the result of the appearance and the implementation of the Internet device in journalism and in other forms of Mass Media. Now, it has become much easier for any one who has a computer, or even a mobile phone connected to the World Wide Web to get access to breaking news with their in-depth analysis as they occur in surrounding or in far-off places. The significance of the role the Internet plays in spreading information has led many large media corporations to build up websites and strive to make them look as perfect as possible because these websites allow such corporations to produce sections which complement the various programmes they broadcast on air. I believe that the news reported in such websites reflects ideological agendas, and that it tends to shape and alter people’s views about what is really going on both at a national and an international level.
     Therefore, this paper will try to examine the ways with which such corporations report news in their websites. For practical and methodological reasons, however, I shall concentrate on examining the way two website news, namely Aljazeera* (1) and the BBC* (2)  report the situation in Iraq by headlines.
  Despite the fact that a lot has been said on the way Aljazeera and the BBC have covered the Iraqi war, little focus has been given to examine how this coverage reveals distinct ideologies. I, thus, feel it is necessary to draw attention to this fact. The purpose behind this exercise is to show how the use of ideologically embedded language in the reports of Aljazeera and the BBC websites affect viewers’ opinion on the war in Iraq. To determine this, this paper attempts to analyse the discursive features of textual discourse in the headlines of online news reports of Aljazeera and  the BBC.
My data consists of samples of headlines drawn from the websites of both the BBC and Aljazeera. The data is collected according to a synchronic approach. That is why; I have narrowed down my scope of study to collecting a corpus drawn from coverage of the situation in Iraq during April and May, 2007.
       This paper is divided into two chapters. The first chapter includes two sections. The first section will discuss Discourse Analysis from a theoretical framework and the different approaches to the Critical Study of Language. In this section I will try to examine the relations between discourse and power and the interrelations between Discourse and media, power and ideology.
The second section in the first chapter is the section of methodology, in which I shall present the study design of this paper, including the research questions and I will present the procedures I have followed to collect the samples of my data. In chapter II I will   analyse some samples of the data I have gathered and a theoretical background about the linguistic methods used to analyse the discursive features that characterise Aljazeera and the BBC’s discourse on their websites.

 



 Chapter I
        
 I .Review of literature
1.1. Critical Discourse Analysis.
        
        The interests of Discourse Analysis cover a wide range and a broad area of language study. That is to say, it is an interdisciplinary approach to language that contains a variety of approaches which differ in both the ways they view language and the methods they use in studying it. (Wetherell et al. 2001: i) define discourse analysis as a 'set of methods and theories for investigating language in use and language in social contexts' (qtd.in Katie MacMillan).While Fairclough (1989: 20) describes Discourse Analysis as the study of language which views “language as a form of social practice”. He maintains that critical study of language tends to account for the ways social and political domination is reproduced by different forms of language, particularly text and talk. Furthermore; Fairclough (1989:5) explains that the term ‘critical’ is used to show the role  Discourse Analysis plays in breaking the text apart in order to know the motivations behind the social struggle for power and the various interrelated connections between language, power and ideology . Thus, it is obvious that studying Discourse Analysis will make it possible for us to unearth the deliberately embedded and hidden ideologies in any form of discourse (i.e. spoken, written, visual and so on). Critical discourse Analysis also allows us both to know the social conditions behind the production of any discourse and to determine the social factors that evoke our response and interpretation concerning any given discourse. Fairclough (1989:5) adds that
“CLS analyses social interactions in a way which focuses upon their linguistic elements, and which sets out to show up their generally hidden determinants in the system of social relationships, as well as hidden effects they may have upon that system.”

        It goes without saying that once one manages to discover the ‘linguistic elements’, which are tools used to exercise power in social interaction, one would be able to engage actively in the struggle for power through the use of particular discourses according to the various situations where social interaction takes place. Therefore, the acquisition of the knowledge of Critical Discourse Analysis gives us access to a comprehensive view and a high stance in any social relationships where one can identify the tools to emancipate from the social conventions and the ‘common sense assumptions’, and at the same time provides him/her with the linguistic devices that enables one to exercise power in relation to other members of his/her society.
         As it deals with the complex interrelationships between language, power, and ideology Critical Discourse Analysis provides, as Fairclough (1985:13) states, a ‘broad conception of the social study of language at the core of language’. That is to say, it provides a theoretical framework for the study of language in social interaction by filling in areas ignored by other approaches to language (such as Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Pragmatics and so on). Although our present paper is not concerned in discussing the limitations of each of the above approaches to the study of language, they, according to Fairclough (1985:13), have provided the grounds for a more comprehensive theoretical framework for Critical Discourse Analysis as a theory which attempts to account for the use of language beyond the sentence and utterances boundaries (i.e. as a social practice) ,as well as to explain the connections between language and society and finally to describe the discursive features that characterizes  the everyday communication in the society.
1.1.1 Discourse and the media
     1.1.2.1. Discourse
         Discourse is the context, environment, and conditions within which utterances are produced to make meaning and knowledge accessible to others. However, the definition of discourse remains ambiguous since it covers a wide range of areas. In other words, the meaning of Discourse   as a form of what is spoken or written (printed texts, lectures, TV programmes, etc.) includes all that can be produced and interpreted within social interactions. Moreover, Discourse may involve the conventional, social, and institutional conditions behind the statements made. Fairclough (1989:25) describes discourse as involving social conditions which can be represented as “social conditions of production, and social conditions of interpretation.”
        Therefore, one would safely assume that discourse is a vehicle through which relations of power, within any given society, are exercised and communicated to affect all aspects of social life. Fairclough (1989:25) claims that these social conditions not only influence the member resources which individuals produce either in the form of a text or a spoken discourse, but also the way other individuals interpret ‘MR’. As presented in figure.1.
                                                                            
                                                                         Fig.1 Discourse as text interaction and context


Social conditions of productions

Process of production


text


Process of interpretation
interaction
Social conditions of interpretation
Context




        






                                                                     
                                               Source from (Language and Power: 1989, 25)

        If we were to word the above figure, we would emphasise on illustrating the complex interrelationship between context, interaction and text on one had, and on the relationship linking the conditions of productions and interpretations with text on the other. In other words, to analyse any form of discourse (i.e. written, spoken, visual etc.), one should have a comprehensive overview of all the other dimensions of that discourse,  including conditions of production and interpretation, processes of production and interpretation and text as the core via which all the other social elements interconnect.
      

1.1.2.2. Discourse and ideology
        Being an environment or a context as mentioned earlier, discourse can be a means through which the connections of power and the struggle for power can give rise to social conventions. These conventions, which are, according to Fairclough (1989:2), the result of power relations and power struggle implicitly convey ‘common sense assumptions’. That is to say, individuals reinforce common sense assumptions through the every day social interaction by unconsciously communicating within and interacting in accordance to the linguistic conventions characteristic to the society where these individuals live. Thus, these ‘assumptions’ are in fact nothing but ideologies embedded in the various forms of discourse   while interacting. Fairclough (1989:2) shows that “The exercise of power in modern society is increasingly achieved through ideology, and more particularly through the ideological workings of language.” This quotation states that the exercise of power, whose nature is not explicit, is dependent on embedded ideological assumptions through which power is exercised. Therefore, we can consider ideology as a close link to power, since it both legitimizes the struggle for power, and at the same time hides the differences between individuals according to their relation in the struggle for social power.
         
1.2.2. Power of the media discourse
                             1.2.2.1 Media

        Media is viewed as one of the most influential forms of discourse, the reason why it has been adopted in contemporary global changes by states, large corporations and powerful individuals to exercise power and control in order to shape the way people think and act. That is to say, social consciousness can be shaped according to the will of those who are in control of the media, while the people upon whom this form of power is exercised are vulnerable to efficiently participate in the struggle for power or even challenge the producers of the Media discourse aimed at them. Fairclough (1989:49) describes it as being characterized by its ‘one-sidedness’ since it differs from face-to face discourse which  requires two or more participants to interact simultaneously.   (Curran et all, 1982: i) describe media as “powerful propaganda agencies brainwashing a susceptible and defenceless public” and triggering ‘word bullets’ that make their way deep into passive and helpless victims (i.e. audience).  Fairclough (1989:49) goes on to refer to Media Discourse as being characterized by ‘hidden relations of power’ that media organizations tend to use, either to hide or to deviate  people’s attention from reality , and therefore change their opinions and attitudes towards both national and international affairs. According to him, ‘mass media discourse’ is a field which is worth studying because of its unclear and often ambiguous role in revealing relations of power.  In other words, media functions as a mediator through which power can be exercised in a disguised way, where the relations between the producers of any given discourse and the audience interpreting it are not immediate. This aspect not only makes of the media one of the most powerful tools to exercise different forms of power, but a place where relations of power and struggles for power exist as well.
       1.2.2.2 .Media and ideology
As a starting point let us explore the definition of Ideology in the following quotation:
        “The belief system, true or untrue, shared by members of a society or a subgroup within a society. Adherence to the belief system is an obligation of membership of the society or subculture. There are many ways in which ideologies can be identified. They may refer to a set of ideas held by a group of people, to ideas about social reality which are false (false consciousness), or to ideas, knowledge, or practices which result in the reproduction of social relationships characterized by inequality or contradiction. Following Marx, ideology serves to legitimate or mask the real state of social relations”.
From Oxford university press  
       
         The relation between media and ideology has been the focus of many theoretical approaches, such as the Marxist approach because of the nature of its dynamic role in establishing ideologies or denouncing others. Most of the media discourse tends to produce ways of representing the world where we live, and defines it by providing ‘ideal models’ for appropriate behaviours and attitudes. Fairclough (1989:49) illustrates this by referring to media as involving ‘hidden relations of power.” He determines this by raising questions to which media producers provide answers, which reflect the way their social conditions of production (i.e. their views and ideologies) view events .Thus, through the media we know the “appropriate” roles of men and women, or the roles of citizens and their governments. Moreover, media tells us what prosperity is and how it is obtained, and it also tells us what qualifies as a terrorist act and what qualifies as self-defence etc. These questions and many others constitute key concepts and fundamental questions about media and ideology.   
        So far, I have attempted to discuss the theoretical framework of Critical Discourse Analysis and I have tried to discuss discourse as a social practice where embedded ideologies are communicated to achieve power. Also, I have discussed the role of the media in reinforcing some ideologies and denouncing others. The following section is on Methodology.
    1.2. Methodology:
            This section is devoted to the study design which will include describing the study,    the data, and the method of analysis used in collecting this data.
1.2.1. Study Design
1.2.1.1. The study data
        The data of this study consists of headlines collected from two web based news services: the BBC and Aljazeera. I have collected 40 headlines during April and May, 2007. I have collected my data following three criteria: 1) headlines relevant to the Iraqi situation, 2) headlines that have been issued during April and May and 3) headlines that reflect both positive and negative attitudes towards the Iraqi ordeal.  I have decided to collect headlines because:
_ Analysing whole articles will be time consuming.
_ Headlines are the first thing one sees in news articles.
_ Headlines catch the reader’s attention.
_ Headlines are precise summary of the news reports.
_ Headlines reveal hidden ideologies.
 1.2.1.2.2. The method of analysis.
 I will be using the methods of analysis proposed by Critical discourse Analysis (Fairclough: 1989). That is to say, my analysis will be based on three procedures:
1) The description of headlines.
2) Their interpretation.
3) The explanation of their significance.
 


Chapter II
         



Discursive Features of news headlines in Aljazeera and the BBC web sites.



   Introduction:

        This chapter intends to focus on the way Aljazeera and the BBC use headlines to report news about the Iraqi stand off. In other words, this analysis aims at describing discursive features that are characteristic of headlines in reporting news. I will focus on vocabulary features as well as sentence structures used in headlines, and I will try to interpret and explain the reasons behind using some of  these  linguistic features.
     2.1. Description of headlines
     2.1.1. Definition of headlines
    
        The contemporary modern changes have made reading news articles an exhausting exercise. Most people do not have enough time to go through long articles. Therefore, news agencies have thrived to make reading news as readably accessible as possible by focusing on short, accurate and precise headlines. In other words, news agencies tend to use certain linguistic features of headlines that make them more catchy and memorable in order to have wide and effective impact on readers.
A news headline is defined as :
“a text at the top of a newspaper article, indicating the nature of the article below it. Headlines may be written in bold, and are written in a much larger size than the article text. Headline conventions include normally using present tense, omitting forms of the verb “to be” in certain contexts, and removing short articles like “a” and “the”. Most newspapers feature a very large headline on their front page, dramatically describing the biggest news of the day. A headline may also be followed by a smaller secondary headline which gives a bit more information or a subhead.  (wikipedia)
      
        Since they are carefully constructed, headlines tend to function an important role in either provoking the reader’s curiosity or deterring it by using certain linguistic features.
            
     2.1.2 Linguistic Features of headlines.
        This section explores the linguistic features that characterize headlines. The linguistic features of headlines, as suggested by Fairclough (1989:109), include features of vocabulary, grammar and punctuation. However, He argues that in analysing any given discourse, one should analyse the three dimensions that constitute it. That is to say, the dimensions of “text”, “interaction” and “context” ought to be taken into consideration before drawing any assumption or conclusion about discourse.  (See Figure.1, page .6).
       2.1.2.1. Vocabulary of headlines.
        According to Fairclough (1989:112), vocabulary should be analyzed in accordance to three types of value that formal features may have: experiential, relational and expressive values.
 2.1.2.1.1. Experiential value of words in headlines.
 Fairclough (1989:112) states that “Experiential value is to do with contents and knowledge and beliefs.” In other words, the experiential value of words used in headlines as a written form of discourse shows how ideological differences between headlines drawn from Aljazeera ,(A1) and the BBC ,(B1) websites in their depiction of the Iraq War are coded in their vocabulary. The following set of headlines illustrates this point.
 Extract I
Transcriptions of Arabic headlines
 English translation of the Arabic headlines
B.1.  ʔidana . su n n eja  . liƷidar
alʔaʢdamja.
Sunni condemnation against Al-adamyaa Security Wall.
A.1.Ʒidar aməri:ki liwaqəf
al ʔiqtita:l al madhabi wa gejtes u:wa:silu zejartarahu

US wall to end sectarian killings and Gates continues his visit.

    Note: the letter (B) refers to headlines from the BBC and the letter (A) to Aljazee
      
       In B.1 the BBC used the words ʔidana meaning condemnation, and the word sunneja meaning a religious branch in Islam (Sunnite) .This headline may appear innocent looking form the first glimpse. However; if we associated this headline with the situation in Iraq, we would definetly notice the absence of another religious branch,namely shiite ,which is directly involved in the  sectarian violence in Iraq. therefore, this would raise a number of questions. For example, why only Sunnis condemn the building of the wall which is intended to reduce the amount of attacks against both civilians and coalition forces? Does the absence of shiite muslims exclude them from those who oppose  the construction of the wall? Or does the BBC Want its readers to blame violence on Sunnis by  foregrounding them as rejecting  attempts to reduce violence?
       Ultimately, such questions will lead us as Discourse Analysts to know or at least have some deduction on what was really going on in the mind of the producer of B.1.
A.1 differs from B.1 in the sense that it has used more and different words to report the same news, yet with a totally different point of view. The word Ʒidar ,( wall) is used along  side with amri: ki  ( American) , ʔiqtita:l ( fighting)  and  al madhabi ( sectarian)  to suggest that there are three parties involved in this issue , which is a fact  avoided in the first headline (i.e.B1) , but it is embedded in the second one (i.e. A1) through the use of vocabulary items to convey an ideological orientation in representing the Iraqi situation , which is different from the first one. By scrutinizing the two headlines in terms of vocabulary we can sense that Aljazeera is more critical in representing this situation as more chaotic, whereas   the BBC tends to show that the situation is less problematic.
2.1.2.1.2. Relational value of words in headlines
         Fairclough (1989:116) suggests that the choice of words in texts reveals a relational value in the sense that it does not only demarcate the interrelationship between the producers and the interpreters, but it also distinguishes the relations between different participants. Extract II serves as an illustration of this fact.
Extract II
   

Transcriptions of Arabic headlines
English translation of the Arabic headlines
B.1.ʔassæfi:r alʔaməri:ki ju:dafiʢʢan Ʒidar  baɣda:d.

 US ambassador defends Baghdad
Wall.
A.1.ʔalma:liki jufawidu mussalæħi:n  wa  ʔal-qāʕida taʢdimu  ʢiʃri:na ʃurrtjan
Al maliki negotiates with insurgents and Al-qaeda executes 20 police officers.


       the use of  ʔassæfi:r’ (ambassador)   with  ‘  ju:dafiʢʢan Ʒidar  baɣda:d’  ( defends Baghdad wall) in B.1  suggests that the ambassador is performing a legal action , which is  defending the decision to build the security wall. The producers of this headline could have used the ambassador’s family name instead of his title, but the term ʔassæfi: r’ (ambassador) has the connotation of someone with good intentions. Thus, the words in B.1 establish different hidden relationships. The first one is between the ambassador and the Iraqi people (depicted in Baghdad), where he is depicted as someone coming from overseas with help and assistance to Iraqis, while the next relationship can be elicited from the way the ambassador has been represented. That is to say, the producers of this headline acknowledge the existing relationship between the ambassador and the Iraqis and therefore state their stance in relation to the other participants. In other words, the BBC here states the existence of a legal relationship between the US Government represented  in the ambassador and the Iraqis, while they deliberately deny that there are hunderads of thousands of US troops present in Iraq to reinforce and back up any decision taken by the US administration in Iraq.
         The first thing one can notice in (A.1) is that  ʔalma:liki (Almaliki) who is the Iraqi prime minister is disassociated from his title as prime minister. The words ju: fa: widu (negotiates) and mussalæħi:n (insurgents) show that the tense relationship between the Iraqi government and the insurgents is about to be released  through talks and negotiations. However, the words used in the second part of the same headline, namely ʔal-qāʕida’ ( Alqaeda) which is one of the insurgency groups and  ‘taʢdimu’ (execute)  plays down the prospect of any agreement between the Iraqi government and the insurgents. The choice of the words in this headline is based upon an attempt by the producers to show their attitude towards the Iraqi government and therefore export their stance to their audience. That is to say, Aljazeera as an Arab news agency tend to depict the Iraqi government which is loyal to the occupying forces as having hard times dealing with the non-stop turmoil.
      

     2.1.2.2. Experiential values of grammatical features in headlines
        Various grammatical forms of a language are used alternatively to code, according   to Fairclough (1989.120), happenings or relationships in the world. In other words, the choice of specific grammatical forms contributes to the domination of producers over their audience. Therefore, grammatical features are also ideologically significant.
      2.1.2.2.1. Types of processes in headlines
    Fairclough (1989:120) suggests that grammatical process types are ideologically significant in the sense that they are carefully selected to represent an event according to the way the producers wish. To elaborate on this, let us examine the following  set of headlines.
 Extract III
Transcriptions of Arabic headlines
English translation of the Arabic headlines
B.1. maʒəlis  ʔal əʔamn   ju:di:nu  
taf ə ʒi:ra  ʔal barlama:n  ʔalʢiraqi  

Security council condemns Iraqi parliament blast.
A.1.ʔalqāʕida  tanəsaħu : ʔal.ʔaməri:kijən bi ʢadami alʔbaħəti ʢan maxtu:fi  ʔalmaħəmu:dia.
Al-Qaeda advise Americans not to search for  Al-mahmoudia kidnapped soldiers

      The  process type used in the above examples can be illustrated as follows: S. V. O. that   is to say,   B.1: maʒəlis  ʔal əʔamn ( security council)  (s) , ju:di:nu (condemns) (v)  taf ə ʒi:ra  ʔal barlama:n  ʔalʢiraqi ( the Iraqi Parliament blast) (o) . While in A.1: (s) ʔal qāʕida (al-qaeda), (v)   tanəsaħu (advises), (o) ʔal.ʔaməri: kijən (Americans). In B.1, The producers use the process type S.V.O to put emphasis on the action of the agent with respect to the object. This choice is ideological because the producers intend to make the act of exploding the parliament a criminal one by reporting the condemnation of the Security Council which is an international institution for settling conflicts and punishing those who don not comply with its resolutions. The key insight here is that the BBC implicitly introduces its point of view that denounces suicide attacks through the fact that the Security Council as a significant institution in the making and implementation of the international law condemns the violence committed by the Iraqis as criminal.
        Likewise, in (A.1) we can notice the same process type as in (B.1), yet with a totally different ideology. The producers here treat   /ʔal qāʕida/ (Al Qaeda)   as the agent and therefore makes it appear as more powerful and more dominant than the American soldiers. In the  sense that it is the element which is portrayed issuing warnings to Americans to stop searching for their kidnapped soldiers.
        To sum up, the above section has been an attempt to determine that the linguistic features of headlines does affect and shift the opinions of readers. As we have seen, vocabulary and grammatical features are carefully selected by the producers to either background or foreground the facts and events taking place in Iraq. Since Aljazeera and the BBC do not explicitly say they are practicing power through embedding linguistic features which is of ideological significance, it has become more and more vital for us as readers to be equipped with enough linguistic knowledge to discover the existence of such power in the discourse of any given media outlet.



  


General conclusion

         Having tried to analyze the discursive features of headlines drawn from Alajazeera’s and the BBC’s websites, I have sensed to a certain    degree the importance of being conscious of social power, which is exercised in our daily life through language. The study focuses on one aspect of this power, namely that of the Media, since it is characterized with a discourse where participants are unequal in terms of power.
        The key insight of this humble study is to make readers question all that they are being subjected to instead of taking every thing for granted. As more and more people have used the Internet, it has become an environment where the struggle for power is taking place that now it hosts largest media outlets such as Youtube and Liveleak which have given viewers the freedom to post uncensored news to the public. That is to say, the struggle for power in the internet has become more complex and more interrelated that it has become rather impossible to define who the real participants are. And if we are not aware of such struggles, we are likely to be unconsciously dominated by other forces. I have tried to determine the existence of such power by focussing on  the way  the BBC and Aljazeera shift their discourse to serve their own ideologies. 
         Nevertheless, the findings of this study are not sufficient enough to account for all the discursive forms used by news websites to have more influence on their audience. Thus, headlines constitute part of a much broader form of discourse used by media corporations to manipulate and control their audience. My study would have been more efficient if I had treated not only headlines, but other media forms, such as the use of video clips, images, articles and so on, since it is impossible to deal with all these aspects given time constraints, I hope these aspects and other new forms of media such as the appearance of websites like Liveleak (3) and Youtube (4) will be the initiation for further researches.


Appendix I
 1.1 Footenotes
Aljazeera*(1): Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة, al-ğazīrä, [al.dʒaezi:.ra], meaning "The Island") is a television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Al Jazeera initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel of the same name, but has since expanded into a network of several specialty TV channels. The original Al Jazeera channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, including on call-in shows, created controversies in autocratic Arab Gulf States. The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast video statements by Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders ( wikipedia)

BBC* (2): The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7.8 billion.). (wikipedia)

Liveleak*(3): based in the UK, is a website that lets users post and share videos, similar to sites like YouTube, but it allows some sexual content and emphasizes reality-based footage such as war scenes from various parts of the world, grisly accidents, executions, and crimes.
Youtube* (4): YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. Videos can be rated, and the average rating and the number of times a video has been watched are both published.( wikipedia)







Appendix II
1.1Phonetic conventions of Arabic consonants 
Consonants
Arabic tanscroption
 Arabic scripts
glottal stop
ʔ
ء
 voiced pharyngeal fricative
ʢ
ع
voiced post alveolar fricative    
Ʒ 
ج
voiced palato-alveolar fricative
ʃ
ش
voiced uvular fricative
ɣ
غ
voiced labial stop
b
ب
voiceless alveolar stop
t
ت
voiced alveolar stop
d
د
voiceless velar stop
k
ك
labial nasal
m
م
alveolar nasal
n
ن
voiceless labial fricative
f
ف
voiceless uvular fricative
x
خ
voiceless glottal fricative
h
ه
voiced pharyngeal fricative
ħ
ح
labio-velar glide
w
و
palatal glide
j
   ي

1.2. Vowels

 i: high front unround
 u: high back round 
 a: low back unround
 ə : indicates a schwa
 æ: low front unrounded
 e:  mid front unrounded

 




Appendix III
3.1 BBC headlines
Date of publication
Arabic headlines from the BBC
English translation of Arabic headlines
2007/04/21 16:51:58 GMT
إدانة سنية لجدار الأعظمية
Sunni condemnation against
Al-adamyaa Security Wall.
2007/05/11 15:36:29 GMT

الجيش الأمريكي ينقل معركة العراق إلى يوتيوب

US Army  takes Iraq war to Youtube
2007/04/23 15:48:29 GMT
السفير الامريكي يدافع عن جدار بغداد
The US ambassador defends Baghdad  wall

2007/04/11 06:56:39 GMT
السياسة الخاصة بالعراق "تفرخ إرهابا من نوع آخر"


The Iraq policy “ breeds another kind of terrorism”
2007/04/11 10:12:20 GMT
العراقيون يعيشون "معاناة" هائلة
Iraqis undergo  great ‘’suffering’’
2007/04/11  21:18:54 GMT
امريكا تتهم ايران بتسليح المقاتلين في العراق

US accuses Iran of arming insurgents in Iraq.
2007/05/09 07:41:34 GMT
انفجار سيارة مفخخة في أربيل، وتشيني في بغداد

A VBIED blasts in Arbil , and Cheney in Baghdad
2007/04/21 02:49:17 GMT
بوش: الخطة الامنية في العراق تحقق اهدافها

Bush: Security plan in Iraq meets its goals.
 2007/04/11 01:24:17 GMT
بوش يدعو الى مناقشة أزمة تمويل القوات في العراق

Bush calls for discussing the troops funding crisis in Iraq.
2007/05/04 02:11:56 GMT

"حان الوقت لاعتراف واشنطن ولندن بالهزيمة في العراق"
 " It is high time Washington and London admitted defeat in Ira"
2007/05/ 10 14:37:31 GMT

شبح حرب العراق يطارد بلير حتى بعد مغادرة داوننج ستريت

Iraq War haunts Blair even after he quits
2007/05/12 02:03:19 GMT

طالباني: القوات الأمريكية تحتاج البقاء في العراق سنة أو سنتين

Talabani : US forces needs to stay in Iraq for one or two years.
2007/05/02 14:12:33 GMT

لا حديث عن الانسحاب من العراق في شرم الشيخ إبراهيم الجارحي

No talks on pulling out from Iraq in Sharam Asheikh.
2007/04/09 13:40:07 GMT


مئات الآلاف يتظاهرون في ذكرى سقوط بغداد         


Hundereds of thousands demonsrate in the anniversary of fall of Baghdad.
2007/04/13 23:59:53 GMT
مجلس الأمن يدين تفجير البرلمان العراقي
Security council condemns the Iraqi parliament blast.
ر 2007/05/11 19:15:31 GMT

مقتل 23 في تفجيرين انتحاريين ببغداد

23 killed in two suicide explosions in Bagdad.
2007/05/08 23:17:26 GMT

هجوم أمريكي" يودي بحياة أطفال عراقيين"

US raid " killed Iraqi children "
2007/05/09 02:41:52 GMT

واشنطن: سوريا وحدها مسؤولة عن انتحاريي العراق ا

Washington : Syria is responsible for Iraq auicide qttqckers.







3.2 Aljazeera headlines

English translation of Arabic headlines
Arabic headlines from Aljazeera
Date of publication
US army expscts fightings to intensify in Iraq.
الجيش الأميركي يتوقع تصاعد القتال في العراق
السبت 18/4/1428 هـ - الموافق5/5/2007 م
US army lost six soldiers and states three others are missing.
الجيش الأميركي يخسر ستة جنود بالعراق ويقر بفقدان ثلاثة

لثلاثاء 28/4/1428 هـ - الموافق15/5/2007 م
Al-Qaeda advise Americans not to search for  Al-mahmoudia kidnapped soldiers
القاعدة تنصح الأميركيين بعدم البحث عن مخطوفي المحمودية

لثلاثاء 28/4/1428 هـ - الموافق15/5/2007 م
Al qaeda denies fighting with tribes and deaths in a police camp.
القاعدة تنفي الاقتتال مع العشائر وقتلى بانفجار بمعسكر للشرطة
السبت 18/4/1428 هـ - الموافق5/5/2007 م
Al-maliki vows to stop Al aadamia wall and five Americans are dead.
المالكي يتعهد بوقف سور الأعظمية ومصرع خمسة أميركيين
الاثنين 6/4/1428 هـ - الموافق23/4/2007 م
Al maliki negotiates with insurgents and Al-qaeda executes 20 police officers.
المالكي يفاوض مسلحين والقاعدة تعدم 20 شرطيا

الثلاثاء 30/3/1428 هـ - الموافق17/4/2007 م
Bush sticks to stay in Iraq, and Aqaeda denies the death of its leader.
بوش يتمسك بالبقاء في العراق والقاعدة تنفي مقتل زعيمها
لأربعاء 15/4/1428 هـ - الموافق2/5/2007 م
US wall to end sectarian killings while Gates continues his visit.
جدار أميركي لوقف الاقتتال المذهبي وغيتس يواصل زيارته
الجمعة 3/4/1428 هـ - الموافق20/4/2007 م
Dozens are dead and others are wounded in the non stop violence in iraq.
عشرات القتلى والجرحى في العنف المستمر بالعراق


الثلاثاء 14/4/1428 هـ - الموافق1/5/2007 م
Dozens are dead in Iraq, and Americans lost five soldiers.
عشرات القتلى بالعراق والأميركيون يخسرون خمسة جنود
الاثنين 13/4/1428 هـ - الموافق30/4/2007 م
Dozens are dead ,and Alqaeda capture US troops
عشرات القتلى بالعراق والقاعدة تأسر جنودا أميركيين
الاثنين 27/4/1428 هـ - الموافق14/5/2007 م
At least sixty are dead in two car explosions in Baghdad.
ستون قتيلا على الأقل بمفخختين ببغداد

الأحد 26/4/1428 هـ - الموافق13/5/2007 م
Air strike on al sadar city, and violence claims more Iraqi lives.
غارة بمدينة الصدر والعنف يحصد مزيدا من العراقيين
الأحد 19/4/1428 هـ - الموافق6/5/2007 م
Many killed and others wounded in two car bombs in Al anbar province.
قتلى وجرحى بانفجار مفخختين في محافظة الأنبار
الاثنين 20/4/1428 هـ - الموافق7/5/2007 م
US strikes Baghdad, and the death toll in Karbalaa’s blast increase.
قصف أميركي لبغداد وارتفاع قتلى انفجار كربلاء
الأحد 12/4/1428 هـ - الموافق29/4/2007 م
16 are dead, and the government confirms a decrease in victims.
مصرع 16 ببغداد والحكومة تؤكد انخفاض الضحايا
الثلاثاء 14/4/1428 هـ - الموافق1/5/2007 م
Two soldiers are killed and thousands others search for kidnapped soldiers.
مقتل جنديين أميركيين وآلاف آخرون يبحثون عن المخطوفين

الاثنين 27/4/1428 هـ - الموافق14/5/2007 م
  
      From. : www.aljazeera.net  







Bibliography
-Fairclough, N. 1989 Language and Power,   Longman Inc. New York.
-Gurevitch, M, Tony  Bennet, James Curran and Janet Woolllacott. 1986 Culture Society And the Media: The study of the Media. Methuen and Co. Ltd. New York.

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